Probate In India: Definition, Importance & Application

  Probate In India: Definition, Importance & Application                        @1                        A will  is a document that is drawn by a person with clear instructions as to how his/her assets are to be distributed on their death. In certain situations — and only in certain jurisdictions, such as Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai — the executor of the will may need to apply for a probate in order to legalise it. This article will discuss, in detail, what a probate is, when one is needed in India, what the court fees are, and how it can be obtained. @2 What is a Probate? The Indian Succession Act, 1925 decrees that a probate is official proof of a will. A probate is issued to the executor, or the person who is authorized to implement or execute the will and thereby adds a legal character to the will. A probate, as defined in the India Sucessession Act, 1925, is ‘A copy of will certified under the seal of a court of competent jurisdiction with grant of administration of the

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning

 

Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning
 

1. What is the angle between the two hands of a clock when the time shown by the clock is 6.30
PM?
(a) 00
(b) 50
(c) 30
(d) 150
Explanation : q = 11/2 m – 30h
= 11/2 *30 - 30 *6
= /165-180/ = 150


3. By how many degrees does the minute hand move in the same time, in which the hour hand
move by 280?
(a) 168
(b) 336
(c) 196
(d) 376
Explanation : 28*2*6 = 336
4. At what time, between 3 o’clock and 4 o’clock, both the hour hand and minute hand coincide
each other?
(a) 3:30
(b) 3:16 4/11
(c) 3:1611/4
(d) 3:16 7/11
Explanation : Coincide means 00 angle.
0 =11/2m –30*3
11m = 90*2 = 180
m= 180/11 = 16 4/11
So time = 3 : 16 4/11
 

5. How many degrees will the minute hand move, in the same time in which the second hand
move 4800?
(a) 60
(b) 90
(c) 40
(d) 80
Explanation : Minute hand covers 480/60= 80
6. How many years have 29 days in February from 2001 to 2100?
(a) 26
(b) 25
(c) 23
(d) 24
Explanation : 100th year is not a leap year. So 24 February’s has 29 days
7. 2012 January 1st is Sunday, then which day is the Indian Independence Day of the same
year.
(a) Saturday
(b) Wednesday

c) Thursday
(d) Friday
Explanation : 30+ 29+ 31 + 30 + 31 + 30 + 31+15 = 227/7 = reminder = 3
So Independence Day is Wednesday
8. Which year has the same calendar as 1700?
(a) 1705
(b) 1706
(c) 1707
(d) 1708
Explanation
Year : 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705
Odd Days : 1 1 1 1 2 1
9. If Arun’s birthday is on May 25 which is Monday and his sister’s birthday is on July 13. Which
day of the week is his sister’s birthday?
(a) Monday
(b) Wednesday
(c) Thursday
(d) Friday
Explanation : Reference Day: May 25th is Monday
Days from May 25 to July 13 = 6 + 30 +13 = 49
No of Odd Days: 49/7 = 0
10. March 1 is Wednesday. Which month of the same year starts with the same day?
(a) October
(b) November
(c) December
(d) None of these
Explanation
Month : Mar April May June July August September October
Odd Days : 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3
Total 21 odd days. 21/7 = 0. So November has start with the same day


constitution

1. Right to Life is a ____________
(A) Fundamental Right
(B) Fundamental Duties
(C) Directive principle
(D) Legal Right
2. Total strength of Judges in the Supreme Court of India ______
(A) 25
(B) 30
(C) 31
(D) 34
3. The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers
shall not exceed ____________________ of the total strength of the Lok Sabha-
(A) 10%
(B) 15%
(C) 20%
(D) 25%
4. Which of the following is not a writ-
(A) Habeas corpus
(B) Mandamus
(C) Quo warranto
(D) Warrant
Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 35
5. Which of the following State having Legislative Council ?
(A) Manipur
(b) Odisha
(C) Telengana
(D) Jharkhand


Directions : In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may
be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect
of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without
having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.
Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;
Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;
Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes;
Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes;
Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.
Q.1.
I. The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during this summer.
II. There is tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging
crops greatly.
Answer B
Solution
Clearly, damage to crops due to high temperature may have resulted in a short supply of vegetables
and hence an increase in their prices
Q.2
I. Police resorted to lathi to disperse the unlawful gathering of large number of people.
II. The citizens' forum called a general strike in protest against the police atrocities.
Answer A
Solution
Clearly, the people's mass protest against the police might have instigated the latter to indulge in
lathi-charge to disperse the mob.
Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning182
Q.3
I. It is the aim of the city's civic authority to get air pollution reduced by 20% in the next two
months.
Il. The number of asthma cases in the city is constantly increasing.
Answer B
Solution
The increase in number of asthma cases must have alerted the authorities to take action to
control air pollution that triggers the disease.
Q.4
I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.
II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.
Answer E
Solution
Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly and increase in the
number of thefts in the locality.
Q.5
I. The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of all
phones inside the college premises.
II. Majority of the teachers of the colleges signed a joint petition to the university complaining
the disturbances caused by cell phone ring-tones inside the classroom.
Answer B
Solution
Clearly, the university's decision came as a sequel to the complaint received by it from the college
teachers against use of mobile phones in the college premises.
Q.6
I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided
institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.
II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against
the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.
Answer B
Solution
The parents' protest against high fees being charged by the institutional led the government to
interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level


Q.7.
I. Large number of people living in the low-lying areas have been evacuated during the last few
days to safer places.
Il. The Government has rushed in relief supplies to the people living in the areas.
Answer E
Solution
Evacuating low-lying areas and rushing in relief to the affected areas clearly that floods have
occurred in the area.
Q.8.
I. The performance of most of the students in final exam of class X in the by the Government was
excellent.
II. Many teachers of the Government schools left the school and joined private school.
Answer D
Solution
The students of government schools performing well in the examinations and the teacher of
government schools leaving their jobs to join private school are two separate situations that must
have been triggered by independent causes.
Q.9.
I. Majority of the citizens in the locality belong to higher income group.
II. The sales in the local supermarket are comparatively much higher than in other localities.
Answer B
Solution
The comparatively higher sales in a particular locality are indicative of the high paying capacity of
the residents of that locality.
Q.10.
I. There is considerable reduction in the number of people affected by water-borne disease in
City A during this rainy season.
II. The government has opened four new civil hospitals in City A in the beginning of the year.
Answer C
Solution
The given statements are self-sufficient and depict independent events.


Letter coding : Alphabets in a word are replaced by other alphabets according to a specific rule to
know its code. So the common rule should be detected first. Some examples are given below:
(1) ‘ZYXW’ as coded as ‘ABCD’ then ‘STUV’ is coded as...........
Answer : Z – A, Y– B, X – C, W – D
V – E, U – F, T – G, S – H
STUV = HGFE
Answer = HGFE
Rule= front alphabet= back alphabet

(2) ‘ bcd’ is coded as ‘def ’ then ‘True’ is coded as..........
Answer : b – d (+2)
c – e (+2)
d – f (+2)
+2 letters are considered in this code.
True – Vtwg
Answer = Vtwg.
(3) ‘ Hyderabad ’ is coded as ‘Ixedszcze’ then ‘Chennai’ is coded as..............
Answer : H – I (+1)
Y – X (1–)
D – E (1+)
E – D (1-)
R – S (1+)
A – Z (1–)
B – C (1+)
A – Z (1– )
D – E (1+)
Here if we observe alternatively the letter increasing and one letter decreasing.
Chennai =dgfmozj
Answer = dgfmozj
Number coding : In this each alphabets or words are assigned to the numeric values we should
observe the given letters and the assigned values and use the same rule to find the value to of given
code. Some examples are given below:
(1) Apple is coded as 25563, Rung is coded as 7148. Then purple is coded as
Answer
PURPLE – 517563
Answer = 517563.
(2) In a language A is coded as 1, B is coded as 2, then FACE is coded as
Answer
Then FACE = 6135
Answer = 6135.


(3) PUSH is coded as 1234, ROUGH is coded as 65274. Then SOUP is coded as
Answer
SOUP = 3521
Answer = 3521.
Substitution : In this section an object names are substituted with different object names. We should
carefully trace the substitution and answer given question. Some examples are given below:
(1) ‘book’ is coded as ‘pencil’, ‘pencil’ is coded as ‘mirror’, ‘mirror is coded as ‘book’. Then what
is useful to write on a paper?
Answer : Pencil is coded as mirror
Answer = mirror.
(2) ‘man is coded as ‘woman’, woman is coded as ‘girl’, ‘girl’ is coded as ‘boy’, ‘boy’ is coded as
‘worker’ then 6 years female is known as?
Answer : 6 years female = girl, but ‘girl’ is coded as ‘boy’.
Answer = boy.
(3) ‘Reds’ are ‘blues’, ‘blues’ are ‘whites’, ‘whites’ are ‘yellows’, ‘yellows’ are ‘oranges’, ‘oranges’
are ‘pinks’, then what is the colour of the sky?
Answer : Sky is blue, but blues are whites
Answer = white


Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 187
1. In a certain code, COMPUTER is written as RFUVQNPC. How is MEDICINE written in the
same code?
(a) MFEDJJOE
(b) EOJDEJFM
(c) MFEJDJOE
(d) EOJDJEFM
Answer : Option D
The letters of the word are written in reverse order and expect the first and the last letter all
other letters are move one step forward
2. In a code language, A is written as B, B is written as C, C is written as D and so on, then how
will SMART be written in that code language ?
(a) TLBSU
(b) SHBSU
(c) TNBSU
(d) SNBRU
Answer : Option C
The letters are coded by moving them 1 step forward.
3. In a certain code, RIPPLE is written as 613382 and LIFE is written as 8192. How is PILLER
written in that code?
(a) 318826
(b) 776655
(c) 786543
(d) 156724
Answer : Option A
Word : R I P P L E L I F E P I L L E R
Code : 6 1 3 3 8 2 8 1 9 2 3 1 8 8 2 6
Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning188
4. In a certain code FLOWER is coded as 36 and SUNFLOWER is coded as 81, then how to
code FOLLOWS?
(a) 42
(b) 49
(c) 63
(d) 36
Answer : Option B
The word FLOWER has 6 letters. 62 is 36
The word SUNFLOWER has 9 letters. 92 is 81
Like FOLLOWS has 7 letters. So 72 is 49
5. In a certain code ,'il be pee' means 'roses are blue','sik hee' means 'red flowers' and 'pee mit
hee' means 'flowers are vegetables', How is 'red' written in that code?
(a) hee
(b) sik
(c) be
(d) cannot be determined
(e) none
Answer : Option B
Code Sentence
Il be pee roses are blue
Sik hee red flowers
Pee mit hee flowers are vegetables
In II and III code ‘hee’ stands for ‘flowers’. So ‘sik’ stands for ‘red’
6. In a certain code language : ‘dugo hui mul zo’ stans for ‘work is very hard’ ‘hui dugo ba ki’ for
‘Bingo is very smart’; ‘nano mul dugo’ for ‘cake is hard’; and ‘mul ki gu’ for ‘smart and hard’
Which of the following word stand for Bingo ?
(a) Jalu
(b) Dugo
(c) Ki
(d) Ba
Answer : Option D

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 189
Code Sentence
1. dugo hui mul zo work is very hard
2. hui dugo ba ki bingo is very smart
3. nano mul dugo cake is hard
4. mul ki gu smart and hard
From second code and its sentence neither ‘ba’ is repeated nor is ‘Bingo.
7. If rain is called water, water is called air, air is called cloud, cloud is called sky, sky is called sea,
sea is called road, where do the aeroplanes fly?
(a) Water
(b) Road
(c) Sea
(d) Cloud
Answer : Option C
Aeroplanes fly in sky and as per given codes sky is sea
8. If Orange is called Lemon, Lemon is called Flower, Flower is called Fish, Fish is called Tail and
Tail is called Pen, what is Rose?
(a) Pen
(b) Lemon
(c) Flower
(d) Fish
Answer : Option D
Rose is a flower and as per given codes flower is fish.
9. In a certain code language $#* means ‘Shirt is clean’, @ D# means ‘Clean and neat’ and @
? means ‘neat boy’, then what is the code for ‘and’ in that language
(a) #
(b) D
(c) @
(d) Data inadequate
Answer : Option B

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning190
Code sentence
$#* ‘Shirt is clean’,
@ D# ‘Clean and neat’
@ ? ‘neat boy’
Here # stands for clean and @ stands for neat. D stands for ‘and’
10. If A stands for +, B stands for -, C stands for x, what is the value of (10C4)(A) (4C4)B6 ?
(a) 60
(b) 50
(c) 56
(d) 46
Answer : Option B
(10C4)(A) (4C4) B6 = (10 * 4) + (4*4) –6 = 50


Self – Exercise Questions
Directions to Solve
In each series, look for the degree and direction of change between the numbers. In other words,
do the numbers increase or decrease, and by how much
1. Look at this series: 2, 1, (1/2), (1/4) ... What number should come next?
A. (1/3)
B. (1/8)
C. (2/8)
D. (1/16)
Answer : Option B
Explanation
This is a simple division series; each number is one-half of the previous number.
In other terms to say, the number is divided by 2 successively to get the next result.
4/2 = 2
2/2 = 1
1/2 = 1/2
(1/2)/2 = 1/4
(1/4)/2 = 1/8 and so on.
2. Look at this series: 7, 10, 8, 11, 9, 12,... What number should come next?
A. 7
B. 10
C. 12
D. 13
Answer : Option B
Explanation
This is a simple alternating addition and subtraction series. In the first pattern, 3 is added; in
the second, 2 is subtracted.

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 205
3. Look at this series: 36, 34, 30, 28, 24, ... What number should come next?
A. 20
B. 22
C. 23
D. 26
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
This is an alternating number subtraction series. First, 2 is subtracted, then 4, then 2, and so
on.
4. Look at this series: 22, 21, 23, 22, 24, 23, ... What number should come next?
A. 22
B. 24
C. 25
D. 26
Answer: Option C
Explanation:
In this simple alternating subtraction and addition series; 1 is subtracted, then 2 is added, and
so on.
5. Look at this series: 53, 53, 40, 40, 27, 27, ... What number should come next?
A. 12
B. 14
C. 27
D. 53
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
In this series, each number is repeated, then 13 is subtracted to arrive at the next number.
6. Look at this series: 21, 9, 21, 11, 21, 13, 21, ... What number should come next?
A. 14
B. 15

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning206
C. 21
D. 23
Answer: Option B
7. Look at this series: 58, 52, 46, 40, 34, ... What number should come next?
A. 26
B. 28
C. 30
D. 32
Answer: Option B
8. Look at this series: 3, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12,... What number should come next?
A. 7
B. 10
C. 14
D. 15
Answer: Option D
9. Look at this series: 8, 22, 8, 28, 8, ... What number should come next?
A. 9
B. 29
C. 32
D. 34
Answer: Option D
10. Look at this series: 31, 29, 24, 22, 17, ... What number should come next?
A. 15
B. 14
C. 13
D. 12
Answer: Option A


Directions to Solve
In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have
to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is
implicit in the statement.
Give answer
(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.
1. Statement : "You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and
your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation." - A line in an
appointment letter.
Assumptions
The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.
Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option E
Explanation
The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions.
So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual's worth shall be reviewed (during
probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.
Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 215
2. Statement
It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.
Assumptions
At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.
The schools do not admit children after six years of age.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer: Option A
Explanation
Since the statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 5, it means that the child is
mentally prepared for the same at this age. So, I is implicit. But nothing about admission after 6
years of age is mentioned in the statement. So, II is not implicit.
3. Statement : "In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance
to our employees." - In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.
Assumptions
Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.
Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer: Option B
Explanation
Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward
to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning216
4. Statement : Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18
years of age.
Assumptions
There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.
The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option A
Explanation
I directly follow from the statement, so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not
tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.
5. Statement : "If you trouble me, I will slap you." - A mother warns her child.
Assumptions
With the warning, the child may stop troubling her.
All children are basically naughty.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option A
Explanation :
The mother warns her child with the expectation that he would stop troubling her. So, I is implicit.
The general nature of children cannot be derived from the statement. So, II is not implicit.
6. Statement : The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers
during the next financial year.
Assumptions
There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school
teachers


The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint
such a large number of primary school teachers.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option A
Explanation
Such decisions as given in the statement are taken only after taking the existing vacancies into
consideration. So, I implicit while II isn't.
7. Statement : A warning in a train compartment - "To stop train, pull chain. Penalty for improper use
Rs. 500."
Assumptions
Some people misuse the alarm chain.
On certain occasions, people may want to stop a running train.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option E
Explanation
Clearly, the penalty is imposed to prevent people from misusing the alarm chain. This means that
some people misuse it. So, I is implicit. The alarm chain is provided to stop the running train in
times of urgency. So, II is also implicit.
8. Statement : If it is easy to become an engineer, I don't want to be an engineer.
Assumptions
An individual aspires to be professional.
One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.
A. Only assumption I is implicit


B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option B
Explanation
Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the professional nature of the job. So, I is not implicit. The
statement hints that one rejects a thing that is easy to achieve. So, II is implicit.
9. Statement : The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because
it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.
Assumptions
Railways should give concession only to needy persons.
Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option A
Explanation
The statement mentions that concessions should not be given to people who can afford to spend
holidays in hill stations. This means they should be given only to needy persons. So, I is implicit.
But, II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.
10. Statement : "The bridge was built at the cost of Rs. 128 crore and even civil bus service is not
utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized." - A citizen's view on a new flyover linking east
and west sides of a suburb.
Assumptions
The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.
There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.
A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit


C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit
Answer : Option B
Explanation
Clearly, the statement expresses grave concern over a newly-built flyover not being utilized by
public. This implies that such projects need to be taken up only after working out their utility and
that the huge expenditure incurred on building such structures is worthwhile only if they prove
useful for the public. Thus, only II is implicit.



Words in the alphabetical order

1. How many meaning words can be formed using the first, fourth, seventh, and eighth letter of
the word ‘SUPERFLUOUS’?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
Answer : Option A
2. How many letters are there in between the 7th letter from the left and 8th from right in the
English Alphabets?
A. 8 B. 9 C. 10 D. 11
Answer : Option D


3. Which is the 11th letter to the left of the 4th letter from the right when you write the English
alphabets in backward order?
A. P B. Q C. O D. N
Answer : Option C



Study the following arrangement carefully and answer the question given below -
6 R 0 T 4 A 8 % B F 1 E # W @ 9 H I $ M N * 3 2 V $ 5 G P 7 Q
1. How many such consonants are there in the above arrangement, each of which is immediately
preceded by a consonant and immediately followed by a number?
A None
B One
C Two
D Three
Answer - C
Explanation
According to question –
Consonant – Consonant - Number
B -F -1
G -P -7
2. How many such vowels are there in the above arrangement, each of which is immediately
preceded by a letter but immediately not followed by a symbol?
A None
B One
C Two
D Three
Answer – B
Explanation
According to question
Letter-Vowels-Letter/Number
R - O - T
3. Which of the following is the fourth to left of the twelfth from the left end?
A 8 B B C 2 D %
Answer - D
Sample Questions

Explanation
According to question.
L - L = L
12 - 4 = 8TH
So the required element is %.
4. Three of the following four are alike in a certain way based on their positive in the above
arrangement and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?
A 406 B F%A C @#1 D $H9
Answer - D
Explanation
According to question.




















. If all the symbols are eliminated from the above arrangement, than which of the following will
be the 5th to the right of 10th element from the right end?
A 4 B 5 C V D A
Answer - B
Explanation
According to question.
R - R = R
10 - 5 = 5th from right end after deleting all the symbols is 5


his question is based on the following letter /symbol/number sequence. Study it carefully and answer
the question.
M 3 R # A P 4 9 @ K D 1 U H 5 $ 2 N $ W E Q 6 T V 7 * 8 B X
6. Which of the following elements is the fourth to the right of 12th from right end?
A 9 B 6 C 5 D $
Answer - B
Explanation
Remember, R12 – R4 = R = 6
7. How many such numbers are there in the above arrangement which are immediately
preceded by a symbol?
A 2 B 1 C None D 3
Answer - A
Explanation
The numbers which are preceded by a symbol are $2,*8.
8. If started from M, M is interchanged with 3 and R is interchanged with #and so on than which
element will be twelfth from left?
A 1 B $ C N D D
Answer - D
Explanation
As, M 3 R # A P 4 9 @ K D 1
So it will be D
9. What will come next in the following sequence - MRP,9KU,52W?
A QT7 B 6V8 C QT* D QV7
Answer - C
Explanation
As, M_R_ _P,_9_K_ _U,
_5_2_ _W,_Q_T_ _*.
10. Three of the following four are alike in a certain way based on their position in the above
arrangement. Which of the following does not belong to the group?
A M3X B R#8 C P4V D KDE
Answer - D
Explanation
M 3 R # A P 4 9 @ K D I U H 5 $ 2 N $ W E Q 6 T V 7 * 8 B X
It should be Q in place of E






Analogy
Analogy means similarity. In this type of questions, two objects related in some way are given and third
object is also given with four or five alternatives. You have to find out which one of the alternatives
bears the same relation with the third objects as first and second objects are related.
Example 1:
Curd : Milk :: Shoe : ?
(A) Leather (B) Cloth (C) Jute (D) Silver
Answer : Option A
As curd is made from milk similarly shoe is made from leather.
Example 2:
Calf : Piglet :: Shed : ?
(A) Prison (B) Nest (C) Pigsty (D)Den
Answer : Option C
Calf is young one of the cow and piglet is the young of Pig. Shed is the dwelling
place of cow. Similarly Pigsty is the dwelling place of pig.
Example 3:
Malaria : Mosquito :: ? : ?
(A) Poison : Death (B) Cholera : Water (C) Rat : Plague (D) Medicine : Disease
Answer : Option B
As malaria is caused due to mosquito similarly cholera is cause due to water.
Example 4:
ABC : ZYX :: CBA : ?
(A) XYZ (B) BCA (C) YZX (D) ZXY
Answer : Option A
CBA is the reverse of ABC similarly XYZ is the reverse of ZYX.
Example 5:
4 : 18 :: 6 : ?
(A) 32 (B) 38 (C) 11 (D) 37
Answer : Option B
As, (4)2 + 2 =18
Similarly, (6)2 + 2 = 38.




Assertion and Reason
This type of reasoning questions consists of two statements; an assertion (statement of fact) and a
reason (explanation for the assertion). You have to determine whether each statement is correct. If
both the statements are correct, you have to determine whether the reason supports the assertion.
There will be four answer choices for the possible outcomes and you have to select the correct one.
(1) Assertion (A) : James Watt invented the steam engine.
Reason (R) : It was invented to pump out the water from the flooded mines.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true, but R is false.
D. A is false, but R is true.
E. Both A and R are false.
Answer : A
Explanation
The need of self-working engine to pump out the water from the flooded mines led James
Watt to invent the steam engine.
(2) Assertion (A) : Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would melt the polar ice.
Reason (R) : Increased levels of carbon dioxide would increase the temperature.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true, but R is false.
D. A is false, but R is true.
E. Both A and R are false.
Answer : A
Explanation
The carbon dioxide traps the heat in the atmosphere. If its level rises, more heat will be
trapped. It would increase the temperature and eventually the polar ice would melt.
(3) Assertion (A) : Uranium can undergo a nuclear fusion reaction.
Reason (R) : Uranium has a big unstable nucleus.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning 235
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true, but R is false.
D. A is false, but R is true.
E. Both A and R are false.
Answer : D
Explanation
Uranium does not undergo a fusion reaction. It undergoes fission reaction due to the presence
of a heavy unstable nucleus.
(4) Assertion (A) : Baking soda helps reduce stomach acidity.
Reason (R) : It is a powerful natural cleaner.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true, but R is false.
D. A is false, but R is true.
E. Both A and R are false.
F. Hide Answer Workspace
Answer : B
Explanation
Baking soda is alkaline in nature, so it helps reduce stomach acidity. It is also used as a
cleaning agent.
(5) Assertion (A) : Plants have green leaves.
Reason (R) : Plants contain phycoerythrin, the green pigment.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. A is true, but R is false.
D. A is false, but R is true.
E. Both A and R are false.
Answer: C
Explanation
Plants have green leaves due to the presence of a green pigment called chlorophyll.
Phycoerythrin is a red pigment.


Blood Relations
The questions which are asked in this section depend upon Relation. You should have a sound
knowledge of the blood relation in order to solve the questions.
To remember easily the relations may be divided into two sides as given below:
1. Relations of Paternal side:
1. Father's father ? Grandfather
2. Father's mother ? Grandmother
3. Father's brother ? Uncle
4. Father's sister ? Aunt
5. Children of uncle ? Cousin
6. Wife of uncle ? Aunt
7. Children of aunt ? Cousin
8. Husband of aunt ? Uncle
2. Relations of Maternal side:
1. Mother's father ? Maternal grandfather
2. Mother's mother ? Maternal grandmother
3. Mother's brother Maternal uncle
4. Mother's sister ? Aunt
5. Children of maternal uncle ? Cousin
6. Wife of maternal uncle ? Maternal aunt




1. A man pointing to a photograph says, “The lady in the photograph is my nephew’s maternal
grandmother.” How is the lady in the photograph related to the man’s sister who has no
other sister?
A. Mother B. Cousin C. Mother–in–law D. Sister–in–law
Answer : A
Explanation
Clearly, the lady is the grandmother of man’s sister’s son.
i.e. the mother of the mother of man’s sister’s son.
i.e. the mother of man’s sister.
So, the lady is man’s mother.
2. A woman introduces a man as the son of the brother of her mother. How is the man related
to the woman?
A. Son B. Nephew C. Grandson D. Uncle
Answer : D
Explanation
Brother of mother – Uncle;
Uncle’s son – Cousin.
3. Prasanna said, “This girl is the wife of the grandson of my mother.” Who is Prasanna to the
girl?
A. Husband B. Father C. Father–in–law D. Grandfather
Answer : C
Explanation
Mother’s grandson – Son;
Son’s wife – Daughter–in–law.
4. If Arun says, “Vimal’s mother is the only daughter of my mother”, how is Arun related to
Vimal?
A. Father B. Brother C. Grandfather D. None of these
Answer : D.
Explanation
Only daughter of Arun’s mother –Arun’s sister.
So, Vimal’s mother is Arun’s sister (or)
Arun is the brother of Vimal’s mother i.e . Vimal’s maternal uncle.
Sample Questions

5. Pointing to a man in a photograph. Asha said. “His mother’s only daughter is my mother”.
How is Asha related to that man?
A. Wife B. Sister C. Niece D. Nephew
Answer : C
Explanation
Asha’s mother’s mother is man’s mother i.e.,
Asha’s mother is man’s sister (or)
Asha is man’s niece.
6. A woman going with a boy is asked by another woman about the relationship between them.
The women replied, “My maternal uncle and the uncle of his maternal uncle is the same.”
How is the lady related with that boy?
A. Mother and Son B. Aunt and Nephew C. Grandmother and Grandson
D. None of these
Answer : B
Explanation
Clearly, the brother of woman’s mother is the same as the brother of the father of boy’s
maternal uncle.
So, the woman and boy’s mother are cousins.
Thus, the woman is boy’s aunt.
7. A man said to a lady, “Your mother’s husband’s sister is my aunt.” How is the lady related to
the man?
A. Grand daughter B. Mother C. Daughter D. Sister
Answer : D
Explanation
Lady’s mother husband – Lady’s father;
Lady’s father’s sister – Lady’s aunt.
So, lady’s aunt is man’s aunt and therefore lady is man’s sister.
8. If X is the brother of the son of Y’s son, how is X related to Y?
A. Son B. Cousin C. Grandson D. Brother
Answer : C
Explanation
Son of Y’s son – Grandson;
Brother of Y’s grandson – Y’s grandson.
So X is Y’s grandson.




Decision Making


1. If the set of members of the council who vote against the school bill are the only ones who
also vote against the tax bill, then which one of the following statements must be true?
A. Arjun votes for the tax bill.
B. Karn votes for the recreation bill.
C. Karn votes against the school bill.
D. Bhim votes against the recreation bill.
E. Bhim votes against the school bill.
Answer : E
2. If Karn votes for the tax bill, then which one of the following statements could be true?:
A. Arjun and Karn each vote for exactly one bill.
B. Karn and Bhim each vote for exactly one bill.
Sample Questions

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning240
C. Arjun votes for exactly two bills.
D. Karn votes for the recreation bill.
E. Bhim votes against the recreation bill.
Answer : A
3. Karn votes for exactly two of the three bills, which one of the following statements must be
true?
A. Arjun votes for the tax bill.
B. Karn votes for the recreation bill.
C. Karn votes for the school bill.
D. Karn votes against the tax bill.
E. Bhim votes for the school bill.
Answer : C
4. If one of the members of the council votes against exactly the same bills as does another
member of the council, then which one of the following statements must be true?
A. Arjun votes for the tax bill
B. Kam votes for the recreation bill.
C. Kam votes against the school bill.
D. Kam votes for exactly one bill.
E. Bhim votes for exactly one bill.
Answer : E


8. For exactly how many of the six mobile phones is it possible to determine exactly which
option each one has?
A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five E. Six
Answer : C
9. Which one of the following must be false?
A. Exactly five mobile phones feature a music player.
B. Exactly five mobile phones feature a document viewer.
C. Exactly four mobile phones feature a music player.
D. Exactly four mobile phones feature a digital camera.
E. Exactly four mobile phones feature a document viewer.
Answer : A
10. If Z has no option in common with T but has at least one option in common with every other
mobile phone, then which one of the following must be false?
A. T has digital camera
B. Z has document viewer


C. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have digital camera.
D. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have document viewer.
E. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have music player.
Answer : E
11. Suppose no two mobile phone models have exactly the same options as one another. In that
case each of the following could be true EXCEPT:
A. Exactly three of the six mobile phones have digital camera.
B. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have digital camera.
C. Exactly three of the six mobile phones have document viewer.
D. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have document viewer.
E. Exactly four of the six mobile phones have music player.
Answer : C



Logical Sequence Test:-

1. Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Key 2. Door 3. Lock 4. Room 5. Switch on
A. 5, 1, 2, 4, 3 B. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3 C. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5 D. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
Answer : Option C
Explanation : The correct order is : Key Lock Door Room Switch on
2. Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Word 2. Paragraph 3. Sentence 4. Letters 5. Phrase
A. 4, 1, 5, 2, 3 B. 4, 1, 3, 5, 2 C. 4, 2, 5, 1, 3 D. 4, 1, 5, 3, 2
Answer : Option D
Explanation : The correct order is : Letters Word Phrase Sentence Paragraph
3. Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Police 2. Punishment 3. Crime 4. Judge 5. Judgement
A. 3, 1, 2, 4, 5 B. 1, 2, 4, 3, 5 C. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 D. 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
Answer : Option D
Explanation : The correct order is : Crime Police Judge Judgement Punishment

4. Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Family 2. Community 3. Member 4. Locality 5. Country
A. 3, 1, 2, 4, 5 B. 3, 1, 2, 5, 4 C. 3, 1, 4, 2, 5 D. 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
Answer : Option A
Explanation : The correct order is : Member Family Community Locality Country
5. Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Poverty 2. Population 3. Death 4. Unemployment 5. Disease
A. 2, 3, 4, 5, 1 B. 3, 4, 2, 5, 1 C. 2, 4, 1, 5, 3 D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Answer : Option C




Example 1: Choose the odd one
(a) Horse
(b) lion
(c) giraffe
(d) cheetah
(e) Panda
Solution : option(A) Except Horse all are wild animals
Example 2 : Choose the odd one
(a) 1728
(b) 64
(c) 1331
(d) 343
(e) 441
Solution : option(e) except 441 all are perfect cube
Example 3 : Choose the odd one
(a) Iron
(b) mercury
(c) Copper
(d) zinc
(e) aluminum
Solution : (b) mercury

1. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group?
(A) Badminton
(B) Table Tennis

Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning274
(C) Lawn Tennis
(D) Hockey
(E) Rugby
Solution : (E) Rugby
Explanation
Only sport Rugby contains a single thing Rugby, all other contain 2 things: racket and ball,
stick and ball, etc
*Rugby is not a ball
2. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group?
(A) Morarji Desai
(B) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(C) R. Vekataraman
(D) Rajiv Gandhi
(E) P. V. Narasimha Rao
Solution : (C) R. Vekataraman
Explanation
Venkataraman had been the President, all others PMs
3. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group?
(A) Lima
(B) Wellington
(C) Cairo
(D) Cuba
(E) Kingston
Solution : (D) Cuba
Explanation
Cuba is a country and all other are capitals
4. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group ?
(1) Groundnut

8. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group ?
(1) Ginger
(2) Onion
(3) Beetroot
(4) Coriander
(5) Potato
Solution : (4) Coriander
Explanation : Coriander – modified stem
9. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group ?
(1) Snake
(2) Frog
(3) Rat
(4) Mongoose
(5) Tortoise
Solution : (1) Snake
Explanation : Snake is only poisonous animal
10. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and so form a group. Which is the one that
does not belong to that group ?
(1) Italy
(2) Europe
(3) Greece
(4) Poland
(5) Spain
Solution : (2) Europe
Explanation : It is a continent rest all are countries



Logical Venn Diagram:-


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